Xterm overrides Vim color setting

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http://unix.stackexchange.com – I'm in an Xterm terminal on Linux Mint 13. (Mate) Whatever color scheme i set for the terminal overrides the color scheme i have set for Vim. How can i stop that from happening? I have read this: http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/256_colors_setup_for_console_Vim at 'Overriding the terminal's default terminfo', but it's very fuzzy and I simply can't use it to solve this. (HowTos)