What does it mean when there is a path like /dir/dir/program.attribute?

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http://askubuntu.com – In the question above i was trying to pose an example. I don't know how effective I was in doing so... I just want to understand how there can be what appear to be "hidden" files that exist. Are they in fact hidden? Or are they attributes of a program? How does one access all the .files? Any information would be enlightening. Thanks in advance! (HowTos)