what control the output to the monitor?

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http://www.linuxforums.org – I've been reading up about the linux kernel and the X window system. However, I don't think I've quite got the picture. (duh..) So anyway, when an application wants to display some text or a picture in a window, does X tell the kernel that this text / picture should be drawn? Or does X directly control the drivers of the hardware telling it what to do? From what I've understood, I would think the former is correct.. However, I want to confirm this. If so, when I open up a virtual terminal (not a terminal emulator...but by using Ctrl + Alt + Fn ) is the text there drawn by the kernel (by using the drivers)? (HowTos)