What are the standard file permissions for the /etc directory(file)

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http://askubuntu.com – I kinda screwed up the /etc directory by running: sudo chmod 417 /etc Leaving me unable to use sudo: sudo: can't open /etc/sudoers: permission denied. sudo: no valid sudoers sources foundm quitting Ive been trying to fix it via recovery mode but i'm not sure to what mode I should set it. (I know sudoers is 0440, but this doesnt fix it because /etc is still messed up.) Oh and for the future, how do i add lines to files in etc without screwing up the permissions of etc? Thanks in advance, Joeri. P.S. Im running in Virtual box if that makes a difference. Edit: Booting in recovery and (HowTos)