Unix System Currently Inoperable: File Permissions

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http://askubuntu.com – I'm running a duel boot/partition machine with Ubuntu 12.04 and Windows 7. On Ubuntu OS, I wanted to change the permissions in one of my directories so could extract files into that directory. In the terminal I entered chmod -R 777 /usr/share/icons which gives the owner, group, global read, write, and execute permissions. After I extracted the files into the directory, in the terminal I then entered chmod -R 644 /usr/share/icons which I believe gives the owner read and write permissions but the group and global read-only permissions. This was a mistake. After I entered this command, the entir (HowTos)