[ubuntu] Installing Software -- Ubuntu 12.04LTS

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http://ubuntuforums.org – Hi. I've downloaded a few programs, and they appear as files in my Downloads folder -- but I can't understand how to install them properly (or at all:(). For example: I just downloaded Adobe Reader. When I open the file AdbeRdr9.5.1-1_i486linux_enu.bin using the Archive Mounter, there is a flicker on the Nautilus window -- but nothing seems to happen otherwise. Any clues as to what I need to do would be appreciated. I need the PDF markup tools that Adobe Reader provides (highlighter & notes) or I'd just use the built-in PDF reader. (Part of my difficulty is from just not really u (Hardware)