Ubuntu Broken after Interrupted Software Update

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http://askubuntu.com – I was working while the Ubuntu Software Update prompt popped up, yet again. I was very annoyed by its constant appearance, so I decided to authorize the update. It started, and after a few minutes, with the prompt in a different workspace, my computer froze, with me only being able to move my mouse. I left it for about a minute to be sure, then force shutdown the computer. When I started up again, everything was broken. Instead of my menu buttons in the upper right corner, I had only a red circle with the white bar (error symbol). Upon click, it prompted me to perform a partial update. Additio (HowTos)