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Prompt for sudo password and programmatically elevate privilege in bash script?

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linux-howto

http://unix.stackexchange.com – I'm currently working on a bash script that installs and sets up various programs on a stock Linux system (currently, Ubuntu). Because it installs programs and copies a number of files to various folders that require elevated privileges, I've already done the standard "I need elevated privileges"-and-exit. However, I would like, if possible, to be able to prompt the user for their sudo password and elevate the script's privileges automatically if the user doesn't run the script command with sudo (such as launching it from the GUI file manager), without the user having to restart the script. (HowTos)