operations carried out for fetching a webpage

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http://serverfault.com – After clicking a url of a website(Like http://www.google.com) what all operations are carried out for fetching a page from a server. Can anybody explain this in detail? I want to know how it detects the page is present in xyz server, \var\www\ directory in USA OR abc server, c:// folder in UK. Any reference URL provided by somebody can also help me. Thanks in advance. (HowTos)