Linux system/application programming in telecom equipments [on hold]

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http://stackoverflow.com – I need to understand specifically the scope and what are the end to end applications of the C on Linux system programming and application programming in Telecom equipments. e.g. Considering a CPE(Customer Premise Equipment) , or a DSLAM in access network, what are the things/functionalities that are programmed as C programs where multithreading, synchronization techniques etc are used, apart from the device firmware. Like some application to interact with device etc. The question might sound very crude, but can't find a way to frame it clearly. Tried searching but can't find specific answers. (HowTos)