"Installing" programs

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http://askubuntu.com – This is problem I encounter many times. Sometimes when I download programs, they are in zip/tar.gz or any other extension. I simply extract them and click on bin. Everything is working fine, but I want a program to be visible in unity search, be able to run it from terminal as "programname" and everything else I can do with programs installed from repository. I don't want to edit bashrc, I believe it has to do something with links. How to achieve that? (HowTos)