How to fix a broken partition (without wiping everything out)

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https://bbs.archlinux.org – You could try 'testdisk'  It's in extra and is also available on the SystemRescueCD.  'testdisk' is a tool to recover lost partitions, but I wouldn't hold much hope for it to be successful for you.Included with testdisk is 'photorec'.  It's a file recovery tool.  It ignores the filesystem and tries to recover the data recorded.  It isn't limited to just image files, many other file types: text, office formats, mp3 and other files can be recovered.  I've saved other people's "deleted" files on se (HowTos)