For a noob I'd say you got pretty far The first part of your feedback seems to fit better in a bug-report then a forum post; as the open-vm-tools* seems to be a bit outdated and is missing all of archlinux' latest changes (such as persistent-net-rules).As for the 'no such device' message; what is the output of the vmware-hgfsclient command?
falconindy wrote:This isn't a bug -- you need to include the systemd hook in your initramfs (and before sd-vconsole) if you want to use systemd hooks.It would be nice if the .install would detect that; instead of throwing a 'command not found' error
The installation errors point to a (temporary) hardware problem but have definitely caused some corrupted files which won't help stability. I suggest you start with running pacman -S $(pacman -Qeq) which re-installs all current packages. I'd also have a look at https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/S.M.A.R.T.